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Family Nursing Research Instruments Developed by Family Nurses

Family Nursing Research Instruments Developed by Family Nurses

“Everything that can be counted does not necessarily count; everything that counts cannot necessarily be counted”
~Albert Einstein

Measuring how families function in health and illness has been explored in several scholarly books and journal articles.  I would like to highlight the important work that several of my family nursing colleagues are doing to develop research instruments that measure family variables and still others who have developed instruments that measure family nurse variables.  I am so proud of my colleagues and their pioneering work. I only hope that more of them will develop and maintain a current website about their instrument so new developments and new data from research that has used the instrument can be readily available.

These instruments have the potential to be used in descriptive research as well as in studies that examine the outcomes of an intervention. I long for the day when we have an instrument that examines the relationship between families and nurses from the perspective of both families and nurses–or maybe that’s what Einstein was referring to when he said, “…everything that counts cannot necessarily be counted”!

The following list of instruments is not meant to be a complete list of all of the instruments developed by family nurse scholars, nor a complete list of all of the peer-reviewed publications of these instruments.  Please send me an email ([email protected]) if you have new information I can add to this list. Updated: March 2021

Recent useful publication related to measurement in Family Nursing:

Sawin, K. J. (2016). Measurement in family nursing: Established instruments and future directions [Guest Editorial].  Journal of Family Nursing, 22(3), 287-287. doi:10.1177/1074840716656038

The International Family Nursing Association Research Committee has also recently conducted a survey to collate the list of measures used in family nursing research.

Family Nursing Instruments Developed by Family Nurses that Examine FAMILY FUNCTIONING VARIABLES

F-COPES Marilyn McCubbin et al. USA

McCubbin, H. I., Thompson, A., & McCubbin, M. A. (1996). Family assessment: Resiliency, coping and adaptation-inventories for research and practice. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin.

Feetham Family Functioning Survey (FFFS) Suzanne Feetham, USA (Email: [email protected])

Roberts, C. S., & Feetham, S. (1982). An instrument for assessing family functioning across three areas of relationships. Nursing Research, 31(4), 231-235.

Sawin, K. J., & Harrigan, M. P. (1995). Well-established self-report instruments: Feetham Family Functioning Survey (FFFS). In K. J. Sawin & M. P. Harrigan (Eds.), Measures of family functioning for research and practice (pp. 42-49). New York, NY: Springer.

Hohashi, N., Maeda, M., & Sugishita, C. (2000). Development of the Japanese-language Feetham Family Functioning Survey (FFFS) and evaluation of its effectiveness.   Japanese Journal of Research in Family Nursing, 6(1), 2-10. [in Japanese]

Hohashi, N., Honda, J., & Kong, S. S. (2008). Validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the Feetham Family Functioning Survey. Journal of Family Nursing, 14(2), 201-223.  doi:10.1177/1074840708315967.

Family Management Measure (FaMM) Kathleen Knafl, Janet Deatrick, Agatha Gallo, USA (Website:

Knafl, K., Deatrick, J., Gallo, A., Dixon, J., Grey, M., Knafl, G., & O’Malley, J. (2011). Assessment of the psychometric properties of the Family Management Measure. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36(5), 494-505.  doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsp034

Family Functioning, Health, and Social Support Instrument (FAFHES) Paivi Åstedt-Kurki, Marja-Terttu Tarkka, Eija Paavilainen, Kristiina Lehti, FINLAND (Email: [email protected])

Åstedt-Kurki, P., Tarkka, M.-T., Paavilainen, E., & Lehti, K. (2002). Development and testing of a family nursing scale. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 24(5), 567-579.

Åstedt-Kurki, P., Tarkka, M.-T., Rikala, M.-R., Lehti, K., & Paavilainen, E. (2009). Further testing of a family nursing instrument (FAFHES). International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46, 350-359.  doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.01.008.

Family Health Routines (FHR) Sharon Denham, USA (Email: [email protected])

Kanjanawetang, J., Yuniphand, J., Chaiyawat, W., Wu, Y. B., & Denham, S. A. (2009).Thai family health routines:  Scale development and psychometric testing. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 40(3), 629-643.

Assessment of Strategies in Families  – Effectiveness (ASF-E) Marie-Luise Friedemann, USA (Website:

Friedemann, M.-L., Cardea, J. M., Harrison, M., & Lenz, E. R. (1991). An instrument to evaluate effectiveness in family functioning. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 13(2), 220-241.

Friedemann, M.-L., & Smith, A. A. (1997). A triangulation approach to testing a family instrument. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 19(3), 364-378.

Iceland-Expressive Family Functioning Questionnaire (ICE-EFFQ)  Eydis Sveinbjarnardottir, Erla Kolbrun Svavarsdottir, & Birgir Hrafnkelsson, ICELAND (Email: [email protected])

Sveinbjarnardottir, E. K., Svavarsdottir, E. K., & Hrafnkelsson, B. (2012). Psychometric development of the Iceland-Expressive Family Functioning Questionnaire (ICE-EFFQ). Journal of Family Nursing, 18(3), 353-377. doi:10.1177/1074840712449204

Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire (ICE-FIBQ) Margrét Gisladottir, Erla Kolbrun Svavarsdottir, ICELAND (Email: [email protected])

Gisladottir, M., & Svavarsdottir, E. K. (2016). Development and psychometric testing of the Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire. Journal of Family Nursing, 22(3), 321-338. doi:10.1177/1074840716661593

Svavarsdottir, E. K., Looman, W., Tryggvadottir, G. B., & Garwick, A. (2017).  Psychometric testing of the Icelandic Health Care Practitioner Illness Beliefs Questionnaire among school nurses.  Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/scs.12457

Survey of Family Environment (SFE) Naohiro Hohashi & Junko Honda, JAPAN  (Email: [email protected]

Hohashi, N., & Honda, J. (2012). Development and testing of the Survey of Family Environment (SFE): A novel instrument to measure family functioning and needs for family support. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 20(3), 212-229. doi:10.1891/1061-3749.20.3.1

Family Nursing Instruments Developed by Family Nurses that Examine FAMILY NURSE/FAMILY CARE Variables

Family Nursing Practice Scale (FNPS) Peggy Simpson, CANADA and Marie Tarrant, CANADA (Email: [email protected])

Simpson, P., & Tarrant, M. (2006).  Development of the Family Nursing Practice Scale. Journal of Family Nursing, 12(4), 413-425. doi: 10.1177/1074840706290806

Naef, R., Ernst, J., & Müeller, M. (2021). Translation and psychometric validation of the German version of the Family Nursing Practice Scale (FNPS). Journal of Family Nursing, 27(1), 34-42.

Family Nurse Caring Beliefs Scale (FNCBS) Sonja Meiers, Patricia Tomlinson, Cynthia Peden-McAlpine, USA (Email: [email protected])

Meiers, S. J., Tomlinson, P., & Peden-McAlpine, C. (2007).  Development of the Family Nurse Caring Belief Scale (FNCBS).  Journal of Family Nursing, 13(4), 484-502. doi: 10.1177/1074840707310734

Families’ Importance in Nursing Care: Nurses’ Attitudes (FINC-NA) Eva Benzein, Pauline Johansson, Kristofer Arestedt, Agneta Berg, Britt-Inger Saveman, SWEDEN (Email: [email protected]; [email protected])

Benzein, E., Johansson, P., Arestedt, K. F., Berg, A., & Saveman, B.-I. (2008). Families’ importance in nursing care: Nurses’ attitudes – an instrument development.  Journal of Family Nursing, 14(1), 97-117.  doi:10.1177/1074840707312716.

Saveman, B.-I., Benzein, E., Engström, A. H., & Årestedt, K. (2011). Refinement and psychometric re-evaluation of the instrument: Families’ Importance in Nursing Care – Nurses’ Attitudes.  Journal of Family Nursing, 17(3), 312-129.  doi:10.1177/1074840711415074

Parents’ Perceptions of Care (PPC) Hanna Maijala, Tiina Luukkaala, Paivi Astedt-Kurki, FINLAND (Email: [email protected])

Maijala, H., Luukkaala, T., & Astedt-Kurki, P. (2009). Measuring parents’ perceptions of care. Psychometric development of a research instrument.  Journal of Family Nursing, 15(3), 343-359. doi:10.1177/1074840709339167

Family Nurse Presence Scale (FNP) Sandra Eggenberger, USA (Email: [email protected])

Development and psychometric testing done with family members in the adult critical care setting

Iceland-Family Perceived Support Questionnaire (ICE-FPSQ)  Eydis Sveinbjarnardottir, Erla Kolbrun Svavarsdottir, & Birgir Hrafnkelsson, ICELAND (Email: [email protected])

Sveinbjarnardottir, E. K., Svavarsdottir, E. K., & Hrafnkelsson, B. (2012). Psychometric development of the Iceland-Family Perceived Support Questionnaire (ICE-FPSQ). Journal of Family Nursing, 18(3), 328-352. doi:10.1177/1074840712449203

Bruce, E., Dorell, A., Lindh, V., Erlingsson, C., Lindkvist, M., & Sundin, K. (2016). Translation and testing of the Swedish version of the Iceland-Family Perceived Support Questionnaire with parents of children with congenital heart defects.  Journal of Family Nursing, 22(3), 298-320. doi:10.1177/1074840716656343


I have taken the liberty of adding some additional research instruments that may be useful for researchers who work with families experiencing illness. These have been used or recommended by my Family Systems Nursing colleagues.

Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ-R)

Broadbent, E., Petrie, K. J., & Weinman, J. (2006). The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire.  Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60(6), 631-637. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.10.020.  Retrieved from

Carepartner and Patient Experiences with Hospital Care

vom Eigen, K., Walker, J.D., Edgman-Levitan, S., Cleary, P. D., & Delbanco, T. L. (2000).  A comparison of carepartner and patient experiences with hospital care. Families, Systems & Health, 18(2), 191-203. doi: 10.1037/h0091846

Family Care Climate Questionnaire (FCCQ-P) for persons with heart failure, and a version for family members (FCCQ-F)

Clark, P. C., & Dunbar, S. B. (2003). Preliminary reliability and validity of a Family Care Climate Questionnaire for heart failure. Families, Systems, & Health, 21(3), 281-291. doi: 10.1037/1091-7527.21.3.281

Family Illness Beliefs Inventory (FIBI)

Kazak, A. E., McClure, K. S., Alderfer, M. A., Hwang, W.-T., Crump, T. A., Le, L. T… & Rourke, M. T. (2004). Cancer-related parental beliefs: The Family Illness Beliefs Inventory (FIBI). Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 29(7), 531-542. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsh055. Retrieved from

Family Resilience Assessment (FRA)

Duncan Lane, C., Meszaros, P. S., & Savla, J. (2017). Measuring Walsh’s Family Resilience Framework: Reliability and validity of the Family Resilience Assessment among women with a history of breast cancer.  Marriage & Family Review, 53(7), 667-682. doi: 10.1080/01494929.2016.1263588 Retrieved from

Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R)

Moss-Morris, R., Weinman, J., Petrie, K. J., Horne, R., Cameron, L. D., & Buick, D. (2002). The revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). Psychology and Health, 17(1), 1-16. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.10.020.  Retrieved from

Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC)

King, G., King, S., & Rosenbaum, P. (1997). Evaluating family-centred service using a measure of parents’ perceptions. Child: Child, Health and Development, 23, 47-62. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2214.1997.840840.x

King, S., Rosenbaum, P., & King, G. (1996). Parents’ perceptions of care-giving: Devel- opment and validation of a process measure. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 38, 757-772. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2214.1997.840840.x

Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory

Varni, J. W., Burwinkel, T. M., Dickinson, P., Sherman, S. A., Dixon, P., Ervice, J. A., Leyden, P., & Sadler, B. L. (2004). Evaluation of the built environment at a children’s convalescent hospital: Development of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (TM) Parent and Staff Satisfaction Measures for pediatric health care facilities. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 25(1), 10-20. Retrieved from’s_Conv_Hosp.pdf

If you know of other useful instruments that could be added to this list, please let me know: [email protected]